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Sports Medicine Terminology

AcromioClavicular (AC) Dislocation

AcromioClavicular (AC) dislocation: Dislocation or displacement of the joint between the collar bone, or clavicle, and the acromion, an anatomical feature of the shoulder blade.

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Adhesive Capsulitis

Adhesive capsulitis: A shoulder condition also known as a frozen shoulder in which the capsule of the shoulder, surrounding the shoulder joint, becomes inflamed and stiff. This results in pain and greatly restricted range of motion.
 

   

Axillary Nerve Injury

Axillary nerve injury: The axillary nerve is an important shoulder nerve as it innervates several shoulder muscles. These muscles include the deltoid muscle, the teres minor rotator cuff muscle and part of the triceps muscle. Damage or injury to the nerve results in reduced or even failed function of these muscles.
 
 
   

Biceps Tendon Dislocation

Biceps tendon dislocation: There are two tendons of the biceps muscle; one of the tendons is attached to the shoulder blade cavity and runs through the shoulder joint through a specific groove or sulcus on the front side of the head of the upper arm bone. The tendon is dislocated when it is displaced from its sulcus.

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Biceps Tendon Rupture

Biceps tendon rupture: A complete separation of the tendon from its attachment site resulting in dysfunction of the biceps muscle. This can occur proximally (near the shoulder) or distally (near the elbow).

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Biceps Tendon Tear

Biceps tendon tear: A tear in the biceps tendon without complete rupture or separation.

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Biceps Tendonitis

Biceps tendonitis:  An inflammation of the biceps tendon

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Calcifying Tendonitis of the Shoulder

Calcifying tendonitis of the shoulder: A deposition or lump of calcium in one of the shoulder tendons resulting in small tears of the tendon and an inflammatory reaction.

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Clavicle Fracture

Clavicle fracture: A fracture of the collar bone or clavicle which connects the shoulder blade to the upper body.

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Failed Instability Surgery

Failed instability surgery:  Unsuccessful attempt to surgically correct the instability of the shoulder joint.

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Failed Rotator Cuff Repair

Failed rotator cuff repair: Unsuccessful attempt to surgically repair a tear in one or several of the rotator cuff muscles.

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Full Thickness Rotator Cuff Tear

Full thickness rotator cuff tear:  A tear resulting in complete separation of the tendon from its attachment site on the upper arm bone.

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GIRD (Glenohumeral Internal Rotation Deficit)

GIRD (glenohumeral internal rotation deficit): Repetitive motions may alter the characteristics of the shoulder joint, also known as 'remodeling'. The head of the upper arm bone (humerus) rotates in the cavity of the shoulder blade (glenoid). Repetitive overhead throws like in a pitcher's arm increase the amount of external or outward rotation of the upper arm, but decrease the possibilities of internal or inward rotation. This is known as the glenohumeral internal rotation deficit.
  
   

Glenohumeral Instability

Glenohumeral instability: A 'loose' shoulder joint in which the 'ball' (humerus) slips in and out of the 'socket' (glenoid).
 

   

Glenohumeral-Osteoarthritis

Glenohumeral osteoarthritis:   Degeneration or wear of the surface of the shoulder joint, made up by the surface of the head of the humerus and the surface of the glenoid.

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Injuries in Overhead Motions in Athletes

Sports that involve overhead motions such as tennis and baseball place significant stress on the shoulder joint. When injuries do occur they usually do so in specific patters that are not common with other shoulder injuries. Recognition of these specific injuries and appropriate, timely treatment is essential so the athlete can return to sports. Common injuries are for instance labral and SLAP tears and glenohumeral internal rotation deficit. Advanced shoulder surgeries involving arthroscopic techniques are used to treat these types of injuries.

   

Multi-Directional Instability of the Shoulder

Multi-directional instability of the shoulder: In case of shoulder instability the head of the humerus tends to move in and out of the joint. The direction of the movements depends on the type of instability. The movements can be directed to the front, the back or downward. In case of movement in all of these directions, there is multi-directional instability.
 
   

Nerve Releases (Shoulder)

Certain degrees of osteoarthritis of the shoulder can cause bony deformations called osteofytes. There is growing evidence, supported by Dr. Millett’s own surgical experience and clinical research that these bony deformations can cause severe neural pain by entrapping nerves which run alongside the shoulder joint. One of these nerves is the axillary nerve which innervates several shoulder muscles. Often a release of this nerve is performed during a CAM procedure, after treating the osteoarthritis.

   

Partial Thickness Rotator Cuff Tear

Partial thickness rotator cuff tear:  The attachment of the tendon to the upper arm bone is injured but still partially intact.

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Pectoralis Major Rupture / Tear

Pectoralis major rupture / tear: A rupture or tear in the pectoralis major muscle. The pectoralis muscle is situated on the front side of the chest and runs from the chest to the head of the upper arm bone.

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Scapulothoracic Bursitis

Scapulothoracic bursitis: A bursa is a small sack of fluid which rest at points in the body where muscles and tendons slide across bone. A bursitis is an inflammation of a bursa. The scapulothoracic bursitis is an inflammation of the bursa located where the shoulder blade and rib cage slide across each other.

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Shoulder Arthritis

Shoulder arthritis: An inflammation of the cartilage in the shoulder joint.

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Shoulder Cartilage Injury

Shoulder cartilage injury:  The joint surfaces of bones are covered by cartilage. In the shoulder joint these bones are the head of the humerus and the glenoid cavity of the shoulder blade. Cartilage injury can be caused by a trauma or by wear or degeneration and is typically presented by pain.
 
   

Shoulder Cartilage Tear

Shoulder cartilage tear: A tear in the cartilage covering the joint surface of the upper arm bone or the shoulder blade cavity.

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Shoulder Dislocation

Shoulder dislocation: A complete displacement of the head of the humerus from the shoulder blade cavity; often requires a medical professional to reduce or put the shoulder back in place.

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Shoulder Fractures

Shoulder fractures: A fracture of the humerus or scapula (shoulder blade).

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Shoulder Injuries in Throwers

Shoulder injuries in throwers: Athletes participating in overhead sports are more likely to suffer certain shoulder injuries due to the repetitive shoulder motions they make and the powers they unleash on the shoulder joint. Common injuries are for instance labral and slap tears and glenohumeral internal rotation deficit.
  
   

Shoulder Instability

Shoulder Instability: The shoulder is a 'ball and socket' type joint made up by the head of the upper arm bone ('humerus) and the shoulder blade cavity ('glenoid). In an unstable or 'loose' shoulder, the head of the humerus slips in and out of the shoulder glenoid (ball slips in and out of the socket). This could be caused by injuries to a number of structures including the labrum, glenohumeral ligaments, joint capsule or rotator cuff.  For additional information, please review the dislocated shoulder and shoulder instability section on this website. 
 
   

Shoulder Joint Replacement Surgery for Advanced Shoulder Arthritis

The shoulder is a ball and socket joint and has the greatest range of motion out of any other joint in the body. Shoulder arthritis developes when the cartilage in the joint begins to wear away allowing the protective lining to disappear. On-going and sometimes constant pain, inflammation and swelling are the result of shoulder arthritis. Patients suffering from advanced shoulder arthritis and who have tried more conservative shoulder treatments such as medication, physical therapy and in some cases, arthroscopic surgery—without relief—may be candidates for shoulder replacement surgery.
  
 
Two shoulder joint replacement surgeries available are the anatomic total shoulder replacement surgery and the reverse total shoulder
 
Also, an alternative to joint replacement surgery is joint preservation and cartilage restoration-also known as the CAM procedure. In cartilage restoration, the shoulder joint tissue is, in essence, regrown or transplanted from donated tissue. 
 
Depending on your specific surgery, you may begin therapy in the hospital post-surgery or immediately after leaving the hospital. You will be instructed if you can do pendulum exercises on your own. You can use your arm from the elbow down but no active motion of the shoulder until ordered by Dr. Millett.  A complete physical therapy protocol will be established with you on your first visit after surgery.
   

Shoulder Labral Tears

Shoulder labral tears: The shoulder labrum is a cuff of cartilage that circles the shallow cavity of the glenoid to deepen this cavity. The head of the humerus fits within this socket, making up the shoulder joint. A labral tear is most often caused by an acute shoulder injury or repetitive overhead motions.
 
   

Shoulder Osteoarthritis

Shoulder osteoarthritis: Degeneration or wear of the shoulder joint. Osteoarthritis or degenerative joint disease, is inflammation of the articular cartilage. As the cartilage becomes more inflamed it can wear away creating bone on bone exposure which can be very painful.
 
   

Shoulder Pain

Shoulder Pain:  Pain in the (region of) the shoulder joint.
 
   

Shoulder Rotator Cuff Tear

Shoulder rotator cuff tear: The shoulder joint is surrounded by several muscles and tendons connecting the upper arm bone with the shoulder blade. Four of these muscles, called the supraspinatus muscle, the infraspinatus muscle, the teres minor muscle and the subscapularis muscle, are essential to the shoulder for joint stability and shoulder movement. They are called the rotator cuff. A shoulder rotator cuff tear in one of the mentioned muscles or its tendons is called a shoulder rotator cuff tear.
   

Shoulder Separation

Shoulder separation:  A complete separation of the joint between the collar bone and the shoulder blade, also known as the AcromioClavicular joint.

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SLAP (Superior Labrum Anterior Posterior) Tear

SLAP (superior labrum anterior posterior) tear: A specific type of labral tear on the upper side of the labrum, running from the front to the back of the labrum. It typically occurs at the point where the tendon of the biceps muscle is attached to the labrum.
 
   

Snapping Scapula

Snapping scapula: The movement of the shoulder blade along the rib cage is called the scapulothoracic joint. In case the movement causes snapping feelings or grinding sounds from the shoulder blade it's called a snapping scapula.
  
   

Stiff Shoulder

Stiff shoulder: A shoulder which is restricted in the range of motion.

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Suprascapular Nerve Injury

Suprascapular nerve injury: Muscles are innervated (receive a motion stimulant) by nerves. The suprascapular nerve is an important shoulder nerve as it innervates muscles of the rotator cuff, the supraspinatus muscle and infraspinatus muscle. Damage or injury to the nerve results in reduced or even failed function of these muscles. 
 
   

Supraspinatus Tendon Tear

Supraspinatus tendon tear: A tear in the tendon of the supraspinatus muscle.
 
   

Washboard Scapula

Washboard scapula: Similar to snapping scapula. The washboard refers to the repetitive sounds and feeling brought about by the movement of the shoulder blade along the rib cage.