Chondral and osteochondral injuries to the humeral head are common in the setting of shoulder instability and often contribute to recurrent instability.  Such lesions also may result from high energy trauma, avascular necrosis, infection and iatrogenic causes.  Although small lesions may be successfully managed nonoperatively, there are expanding indications for the surgical management of symptomatic chondral and osteochondral lesions of the humeral head.  We will review the etiologies of such lesions and the most current and effective diagnostic and treatment strategies.

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