Peter J. Millett, M.D., Brandon T. Goldenberg , Lucca Lacheta , Samuel I. Rosenberg , W. Jeffrey Grantham & Mitchell I. Kennedy
Glenohumeral instability is a common pathology of the shoulder joint, especially among young athletes. Despite advancements in technology and the widespread use of diagnostic imaging, a careful history and physical examination still remain the cornerstone of diagnosing patients with shoulder instability. Due to the involvement of many static and dynamic stabilizers, proficient physical examination can be challenging. With a systematic approach to clinical evaluation, the clinician can recognize characteristic patterns of relevant signs and symptoms and make an accurate diagnosis.