Longitudinal studies in women have shown significant increases in BMD with exercise. In an investigation involving pre-menopausal women, Gleeson. reported a significant difference in the percentage change of lumbar BMD in exercising women versus controls. Many interventional exercise studies have demonstrated increased BMD in the lumbar spine, femur tibia, calcaneum and radius; other studies however have not supported these findings. A study by Smidt found no difference in BMD of the lumbar spine or upper femur following year of high intensity trunk exercise in postmenopausal women. The extent of weight bearing seems to play a role although, in one recent non-weight bearing exercise study,Bloomfield were still able to demonstrate an increase in bone mineral without the effects of gravity.
Full Article: Effect of exercise training programme on bone mineral density in novice college rowers