Peter J. Millett, MD, MSc, Jonas Pogorzelski, MD, MHBA, Erik M. Fritz, MD, Marilee P. Horan, MPH, J. Christoph Katthagen, MD, and Matthew T. Provencher, MD, CAPT, MC, USNR
Recurrent instability is a frequent complication following arthroscopic Bankart repair. The purpose of this study was to investigate risk factors for poor patient-reported clinical outcome scores and failure rates.
Patients who underwent arthroscopic Bankart repair at least 2 years earlier were included. Preoperative and postoperative Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation; Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand; American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons; and satisfaction scores were collected. The relationship of the following factors with outcomes and failure rates was assessed: (1) previous arthroscopic stabilization, (2) 3 or more dislocations prior to surgery, (3) glenoid labral articular disruption (GLAD) lesion, (4) concurrent superior labral anterior-to-posterior tear repair, and (5) concurrent biceps tenodesis.
The study included 72 patients with a median age of 23 years (range, 14-49 years). Subsequent revision was required in 9 (12.5%); 1 additional patient (1.4%) had recurrent dislocation. Outcome data were available at a median follow-up of 3 years (range, 2-9 years). All scores significantly improved from preoperatively to postoperatively ( P < .05); the mean patient satisfaction score was 9, with a median of 10 (range, 1-10). None of the analyzed factors were associated with worse postoperative outcome scores. GLAD lesions were significantly associated with a higher rate of failure ( P = .007). No other analyzed factors had a significant association with failure rates ( P > .05).
Patients with arthroscopic Bankart repair for traumatic anteroinferior shoulder instability had excellent outcomes, even in the context of previous arthroscopic stabilization surgery, 3 or more dislocations prior to surgery, concurrent superior labral anterior-to-posterior tear repair, or concurrent biceps tenodesis. However, GLAD lesions were associated with higher rates of failure, and the presence of a GLAD lesion may herald the presence of changes in the articular version or other as-yet-undetermined factors that could predispose patients to failure.