Gruskay J, Rakowski DR, Woolson TE, Horan MP, Millett PJ
Outcomes after arthroscopic pancapsular capsulorrhaphy (APC) with suture anchors for multidirectional instability (MDI) of the shoulder are not widely reported.
To compare intraoperative findings and midterm outcomes of APC with suture anchors for MDI between female and male athletes and between a classic, atraumatic onset versus clinical onset of MDI after a traumatic event.
Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3.
Patients who underwent APC with suture anchors for MDI and were at least 2 years out from surgery were included. Data were prospectively collected and retrospectively reviewed and included the onset of MDI, intraoperative pathoanatomic findings, level of sports participation, and patient satisfaction as well as the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES), Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation (SANE), Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (QuickDASH), and Short Form-12 Physical Component Summary (SF-12 PCS) scores. Information regarding shoulder instability and return to sport was collected, and Kaplan-Meier survivorship analysis was performed.
Forty-one patients (45 shoulders; 25 male, 20 female), consecutively treated between October 2006 and January 2013, were included. The onset of MDI was atraumatic in 22 shoulders and traumatic in 23 shoulders. At surgery, 29 of 45 (64.4%) had labral detachment. Seven shoulders (16.7%) experienced instability episodes postoperatively, and 3 of these underwent revision surgery. The mean follow-up was 3.3 years (range, 2.0-6.6 years). All subjective outcome scores improved significantly from preoperative levels (P < .005). At final follow-up, the mean ASES score was 92.0, and 76.7% (23/30) indicated that they had returned to sports participation equal to or slightly below their preinjury level. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed a survivorship rate of 87% at 3 years. Male patients were 2.3 times more likely to have a traumatic onset of instability (68% vs 30%, respectively; P = .017) and were 2.1 times more likely to have concomitant lesions (84% vs 40%, respectively; P = .004) than female patients. Furthermore, male patients demonstrated a higher mean postoperative ASES score than female patients (97.0 ± 4.7 vs 85.5 ± 16.4, respectively; P = .023). Female patients were 6.9 times more likely to undergo an additional rotator interval closure (RIC) procedure (58% vs 4.7%, respectively; P < .001) and to experience postoperative subluxations (40% vs 22%, respectively; P = .035) than male patients. A traumatic onset of MDI was associated with a higher mean postoperative ASES score (96.4 ± 6.9 vs 87.0 ± 15.7, respectively; P = .048), higher median satisfaction score (10 vs 9, respectively; P = .029), and higher return-to-sport rate (83% vs 44%, respectively; P = .030) than an atraumatic onset.
APC with suture anchors can be an effective and safe treatment for patients with MDI. Labral tears were commonly found, even in patients with a classic, atraumatic onset. Male patients and patients with a traumatic onset of MDI had more favorable outcomes. Female patients may be more challenging to treat as they were more likely to undergo an additional RIC procedure and experience postoperative subluxations.
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