However, the literature suggests a broad range of imaging modalities and techniques that can be used to elucidate the extent of the AC joint disruption, including special X-ray images: alternative planes (e.g. bilateral Zanca, axillary view, dynamic axillary view), stress imaging, dynamic measures, indices, or additional modalities like ultrasound or MRI. Currently, a standardized protocol to image acute AC joint separations does not exist, rendering proficient and unanimous diagnosis difficult. The purpose of this review was to summarize all relevant available studies dealing with diagnostic imaging of acute AC joint injuries. A focus was set on three questions: 1) Assessment of vertical instability; 2) Assessment of horizontal instability; 3) Importance of weighted panoramic views.
Full article: The acutely injured acromioclavicular joint – which imaging modalities should be used for accurate diagnosis? A systematic review