Acromioclavicular (AC) joint injuries account for nearly half of all shoulder injuries among athletes involved in contact sports. While most injuries can be managed non-operatively, high-grade separations may result in persistent pain or functional decline and require surgical intervention. Many surgical techniques have been described to stabilize the AC joint, however, the utility of many of these techniques are limited secondary to reported failure and complication rates. More recently, open or arthroscopically-assisted anatomic reconstruction of the coracoclavicular (CC) ligaments have been introduced and early follow-up appears encouraging. This review provides an update on the anatomy and biomechanics of the AC joint, clinical, and surgical management of AC joint injuries, and a description of outcomes and complications following the highlighted techniques.
Full Article: Acromioclavicular Joint Separations